Please see this page for all movement disorders and cerebral palsy conditions. Other chronic conditions can include but aren’t limited to:

OCD (Osteochondritis Dissecans) - Also known as AVN, Avascular Necrosis. The poor blood supply affects the cartilage bone interface leading to a focal loss of bone and pain. It usually occurs on the femoral bone of the knee joint, but can affect the ankle, the hip and the elbow. Multiple causes of OCD exist including idiopathic (no known cause), use of certain drugs, and blood disorders.

Legg Calve Perthes Disease - Idiopathic (no known cause), gradual onset of hip pain. It most often causes gait disturbances, usually in boys ages 5-10.

SCFE (Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis) - The femoral head (the ball portion) appears to be slipping off the femoral neck. There is no known cause. It is more common in adolescent overweight boys. Surgery is always indicated for this diagnosis.

DDH (Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip) - Formerly known as congenital dislocation of the hip, this is an abnormal formation of the hip joint more commonly affecting female babies that were in the breech presentation in the womb. DDH is thought to be related to increased ligament laxity. DDH can affect one or both hips. Screening for this condition is part of every newborn exam and early treatment is essential for optimal outcomes.

Club foot - also known as talipes equinovarus can be identified before birth through ultrasound. Cluboot can affect one or both feet. It is present at birth. Treatment usually involves serial casting, though surgery may be required.

Bowed legs - also known as genu varum, common in toddlers and usually resolves spontaneously by 18 months of age. If it persists or becomes more severe, further evaluation (x-rays) and treatment is indicated.

Knock knee – also known as genu valgum – is less common than bowed legs. Usually even severe cases spontaneously resolve by 4 years of age. Some children will benefit from surgery to straighten the legs.

Leg length discrepancy - One leg may be longer than the other leg. This can be evaluated with a clinical exam and/or x-rays. A leg length discrepancy can be the cause of hip pain, knee pain and even of curves of the back (scoliosis).

In-toeing - When walking, the feet point towards each other. The cause can originate from the feet, the leg bone or the hip. Not all children will outgrow this.

Flat foot – also known as planovalgus – can be either flexible or rigid. The flexible type is very common in children, usually asymptomatic and doesn’t require treatment unless pain occurs. Many flat footed kids start having pain in 4th to 5th grade and should be evaluated. The rigid type should be evaluated earlier.